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  • 1  SPIRIFERIDE BRACHIOPODS FROM THE FRASNIAN (DEVONIAN) OF THE DUSHAN AREA, SOUTHERN GUIZHOU, CHINA
    马学平
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](4238) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](357)
    Abstract:
    弗拉期是了解泥盆纪弗拉-法门灭绝事件之前古代生物多样性的一个关键阶段.贵州南部的独山地区因其所具有的完整层序及丰富的底栖牛物化石成为我国主要泥盆系参考剖面之一.独山剖面弗拉期的石燕贝类腕足动物至少包括5种类型,其中4种在本文中为首次描述和图示.Conispirifer之前只发现于欧洲及北美的弗拉期地层中,目前也首次在华南独山剖面的同期地层中发现.大多先前从贵州南部其他地区弗拉期地层中描述的多种Cyrtospirifer可归于Cyrtospirifer subextensoides新种内.鉴于前人对Emanuella的模式种E.takwanensis 的内部构造描述的矛盾状况,本文暂把研究区具有抬离壳面的纤细铰窝、固着于壳面的主突起以及其前方下面为外铰板支撑的标本归于E.takwanensis.在华南弗拉期可初步识别出三个腕足动物群组合带:Yocrarhynchus-Phlogoiderhynchus动物群以小嘴贝类-无洞贝类-双腔贝类腕足动物为特征,其时代大致从弗拉阶底部至Pa.punctata带;之后为Cyrtospirifer动物群,以Cyrtospirifer的存在为特征,又可分为早晚两部分,前者(未命名)以conispiriferid类的Conispirifer和Pyramidaspirifer、弓石燕类、无洞贝类等为特征,其时代大致为Pa."hassi"带至下Pa.rhenana带;后者为Hunanotoechia动物群,以丰富的小嘴贝类-无洞贝类.弓石燕类腕足动物为特征,其时代大致为上Pa.rhenana带至Pa.1inguiformis带.
    2  Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology,Part L,MoRusca 4,Remsed,Votume 2;Carboniferous and Permian Ammonoidea(Goniatitida and Prolecanitida)
    周祖仁
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](3407) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](315)
    Abstract:
    古生物学论丛菊石卷1957年出版,其后随着研究的发展和深入,分类认识维新较快、分类数量剧增,修订版很快提上日程,并明确按时代分卷进行.
    3  NEW MATERIAL OF THE PROETID TRILOBITE LA TIPROETUS LU,1962 FROM AERONIAN(LLANDOVERY,SILURIAN)OF WESTERN HUBEI,CHINA
    袁文伟 周志强 周志毅
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](3379) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](395)
    Abstract:
    本文描述湖北宜昌、兴山志留纪兰多维列世艾隆期蚜头虫类三叶虫Latiproetus latilimbatus(Grabau,1925)和Latiproetus tenuis Chang,1974的新材料.Latiproetus Lu,1962的有效性长期多有争论,通过新材料研究确认,该属和Prantlia P(r)ibyl,1946的区别在于其较短的鞍前区,向前收缩较少的头鞍,较微弱的尾肋沟和间肋沟,并不具鞍前区横脊.该属和Astroproetus Begg,1939的区别在于其较深的S1,清晰的S2,较小的活动颊刺,及宽而清晰的尾边缘.因此,笔者认为Latiproetus应为有效属.
    4  Joint Meetings on the 10~(th) National Congress of the Palaeomological Society of China(PSC),the 25~(th) Annual Conference of PSC and the Commemoration of the 80~(th) Anniversary of PSC Successfully Held in Naniing
    王永栋
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](3364) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](318)
    Abstract:
    (一) "中国古生物学会第十次全国会员代表大会暨第25届学术年会--纪念中国古生物学会成立80周年活动"于2009年10月14-16日在南京成功召开.本次大会是我国古生物学界近年来举行的规模最大的国内学术交流活动,有来自中国科学院、中国地质科学院等科研院所、高校、国土资源、石油、煤炭、化工、海洋以及出版部门和博物馆系统以及部分海外学者等近六百人出席.大会开幕式于10月14日在南京国际会议大酒店隆重举行.
    5  CUTICULAR STRUCTURE OF QUERCUS PRESENESCENS FROM THE PLIOCENE IN BAOSHAN,YUNNAN,AND ITS PALAEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS
    李娜 孙柏年 吴靖宇 闰德飞 肖良 戴静
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](3241) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](294)
    Abstract:
    在云南保山羊邑煤矿上新统羊邑组发现了一栎属高山栎组植物压型化石,根据叶形态和表皮微细构造特征,将其鉴定为前灰背栎(Quercus Presenescens Z.K.Zhou).该标本具有之字形中脉,叶最宽处形成一矩形区域,叶缘略反卷的特征,与已报道的前灰背栎化石形态一致,且区别于其它已发现的高山栎组化石.解剖学研究表明,该化石叶片为气孔下生型,上、下表皮均无毛基;上表皮细胞为四边形,垂周壁波状弯曲;下表皮细胞多为四-五边形,垂周壁波状弯曲,气孔器环列型.通过与现生高山栎组植物叶形态相比,当前化石与灰背栎最为接近,且其表皮细胞形态、气孔器类型与现生灰背栎基本一致,二者的主要区别在于前灰背栎无毛基,而现生灰背栎有表皮毛.研究认为,两者被毛的差异,是植物叶形态结构对气候变化的响应. .该标本具有之字形中脉,叶最宽处形成一矩形区域,叶缘略反卷的特征,与已报道的前灰背栎化石形态一致,且区别于其它已发现的高山栎组化石.解剖学研究表明,该化石叶片为气孔下生型,上、下表皮均无毛基;上表皮细胞为四边形,垂周壁波状弯曲;下表皮细胞多为四一五边形,垂周壁波状弯曲,气孔器环列型.通过与现生高山栎组植物叶形态相比,当前化石与灰背栎最为 近,且其表皮细胞形态、气孔器类型与现生灰背栎基本一致,二者的主要区别在于前灰背栎无毛基,而现生灰背栎有表皮毛.研究认为,两者被毛的差异,是植物叶形态结构对气候变化的响应. .该标本具有之字形中脉,叶最宽处形成一矩形区域,叶缘略反卷的 征,与已报道的前灰背栎化石形态一致,且区别于其它已发现的高山栎组化石.解剖学研究表明,该化石叶片为气孔下生型,上、下表皮均无毛基;上表皮细胞为四边形,垂周壁波状弯曲;下表皮细胞多为四一五边形,垂周壁波状弯曲,气孔器环列型.通过与现生高山栎组植物叶形态相比,当前化石与灰背栎最为 近,且其表皮细胞形态、气孔器类型与现生灰背栎基本一致,二者的主要区别在于前灰背栎无毛基,而现生灰背栎有表皮毛.研究认为,两者被毛的差异,是植物叶形态结构对气候变化的响应. .该标本具有之字形中脉,叶最宽处形成一矩形区域,叶缘略反卷的 征,与已报道的前灰背栎化石形态一致,且区别于其它已发现的高山栎组化石.解剖学研究表明,该化石叶片为气孔下生型,上、下表皮均无毛基;上表皮细胞为四边形,垂周壁波状弯曲;下表皮细胞多为四一五边形,垂周壁波状弯曲,气孔器环列型.通过与现生高山栎组植物叶形态相比,当前化石与灰背栎最为 近,且其表皮细胞形态、气孔器类型与现生灰背栎基本一致,二者的主要区别在于前灰背栎无毛基,而现生灰背栎有表皮毛.研究认为,两者被毛的差异,是植物叶形态结构对气候变化的响应. .该标本具有之字形中脉,叶最宽处形成一矩形区域,叶缘略反卷的 征,与已报道的前灰背栎化石形态一致,且区别于其它已发现的高山栎组化
    6  THE DISCOVER AND PRELIMINARY SYUDY OF FOSSIL CADDIS CASE IN CHINA
    黄迪颖 吴灏 董发兵
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](3215) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](364)
    Abstract:
    毛翅目昆虫幼虫俗称石蚕,大部分石蚕就地取材,构筑不同形状,不同质地的巢,多数为管状.石蚕巢化石是一类较重要的遗迹化石,在国外中、新生代报道较多,但在我国未见发表.本文根据作者十多年来在华北及东北地区的大量野外工作,报道了石蚕巢化石在我国的发现.介绍了石蚕巢在中侏罗世道虎沟动物群,早白垩世热河动物群及卢尚坟昆虫群中的类型与特征.石蚕巢是我国遗迹化石研究中的薄弱环节,实际上它们在中生代中期以后的陆相地层分布很广.由于这类昆虫对水质变化的敏感性和适应的相对狭隘性,可用于恢复古环境.一些特殊类型的出现,对地层对比也将起到作用.
    7  THE EARLIEST KNOWN DEINONYCHOSAUR TRACKS FROM THE JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS BOUNDARY IN HEBEI PROVINCE,CHINA
    邢立达 杰瑞德D哈里斯 孙登海 赵慧强
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](3088) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](332)
    Abstract:
    记述中国河北省赤城县倪家沟化石点一组恐龙行迹,并命名一新属新种--中国猛龙足迹(Menglongipus sinensis ichnogen.et ichnosp.nov.).足迹来自土城子组,位于侏罗-白孚纪界线.相邻的义县组曾发现最古老的恐爪龙类骨骼化石,而中国猛龙足迹的发现表明恐爪龙类早在义县组之前便出现在该地区.中国猛龙足迹的造迹者体长约65cm,非常接近于基十的近鸟类.此外,为四川伶盗龙足迹(Velociraptorichnus sichuanensis)的模式标本提供更多细节,并讨论驰龙类足迹型与其他兽脚类足迹之间的联系.
    8  FURTHER DISCUSSION ON THE INVALIDITY OF MEGAPALEOILENUS CHANG,1966
    林天瑞 彭善池
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](3085) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](335)
    Abstract:
    作者2004年根据保存于法国的模式标本和产自我国三峡地区的新材料以及对以往所发现的化石材料的研究,认为Megapalaeolenus Chang,1966一属不能成立,是Palaeolenus Mansuy,1912的晚出异名;其模式种Palaeolenus deprati Mansuy,1912也是Palaeolenus的模式种Palaeolenus douvillei,Mansuy,1912的晚出异名.提出属名Megapalaeolenus Chang和种名Palaeolenusdeprati Mansuy均应废弃的结论.最近,罗惠麟等发表了一系列采自模式标本产地附近的标本,为笔者的上述结论提供了更有力的证据.根据这些新材料,笔者不同意罗惠麟等认为Megapalaeolenus继续有效、Palaeolenusdeprati能够成立的观点.
    9  ON THE CAMBRIAN TRILOBITES TINGYUANIA AND DINESUS
    朱学剑 袁金良 边荣春 胡有山 杜圣贤
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](2904) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](379)
    Abstract:
    新材料表明定远虫(Tingyuania)和双岛虫(Dinesus)这两个三叶虫属足有效的,前者并不是后者的晚出异名.双岛虫类的地质延限被下延至传统早寒武世晚期的清虚洞组.补允描述首次发现的定远虫的尾部,并描述双岛虫的一新种.
    10  A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE MEDUSIFoRM FOSSILS (PARAROTADISCUS)ASSOCIATING WITH BRACHIOPODS FROM THE CAMBRIAN KAILI BIOTA,JIANHE,GUIZHOU
    程心 傅晓平 赵元龙
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](2814) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](335)
    Abstract:
    贵州剑河革东寒武纪凯里生物群中水母状化石属种单调,仅发现1属1种贵州拟轮盘水母钵Pararotadiscus guizhouensis(Zhao et Zhu,1994),但却有丰富的生态现象.近40%的标本与腕足类、三叶虫、金臂虫、棘皮动物或遗迹化石Gnrdia共存,是目前全球水母状化石中罕见的丰富生态现象.其中65件贵州拟轮盘水母钵盘体上、下或周围出现了背、腹壳分散保存的腕足类,说明腕足类与贵州拟轮盘水母钵共同埋藏;1块标本的丛状触手中还包裹有腕足类,说明丛状触手不是类似于植物根系的固着器.这种现象还证实贵州拟轮盘水母钵不是固着而是浮游生活的,其与腕足类壳瓣共存,主要是浮游的贵州拟轮盘水母钵死亡后沉落海底与腕足类壳瓣重叠的结果.
    11  ON THE INVALIDITY OF DIPTEROCARPUS FUJIANENSIS Y.K.YANG ETAL.SP.NOV.
    李浩敏
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](2807) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](320)
    Abstract:
    杨永康等建立并发表的化石新种福建双翅龙脑香(Diptercoarpus fujianensis Y.K.Yang,H.M.Li et J.K.wu sp.nov.fossil plant)未附任何照片或素描图,且无正规的模式标本登记号和确切的存放单位,与国际植物命名法规中有关古植物的重要条款和规则不符.因此,这个新种名属于不合格发表.
    12  NON-MARINE CRETACEOUS BIVALVE TRIGONIOIDOIDEA,WITH A NOTE ON THE JINGXING FAUNA FROM EASTERN TIBET, CHINA
    陈金华
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](2747) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](360)
    Abstract:
    论述亚洲白垩纪广泛分布的非海相双壳类类三角蚌类的分类、演化和起源,并讨论景星动物群的时代及TPN动物群的组合划分.认为类三角蚌类分5个科,各科有独立的、相互平行的演化系列;该类群最早形成于特提斯东部边缘地区的边缘隔离体环境,根据有关内部构造研究,其起源可能与海相三角蛤类有关.类三角蚌类经历过3个演化阶段:早期阶段,即爆发性成种阶段,以景星动物群为代表;藏东的生物地层研究表明,景星动物群时代是Tithonian-Berriasian期;中期阶段,即辐射阶段,以TPN动物群为代表,时代为Hauterivian-Turonian期,或Valanginian-Turonioan期,此阶段还可再分出5个组合,可用于地层划分和对比;晚期阶段,即衰退阶段,以Pseudohyria 动物群为代表,时代为晚白垩世中一晚期.
    13  NEW DATA ON QUADRAPYRGITES FROM THE EARLIEST CAMBRIAN OF SOUTH SHAANXI
    刘云焕 李勇 弓虎军 张志刚 马秋红 吕晓强 陈金 闫亭廷
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](2578) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](402)
    Abstract:
    处于"寒武纪生命大爆发"序幕阶段的梅树村期,生物类群大规模辐射,身体构型快速革新,与前寒武纪生物群面貌明显不同.最近在陕南宁强宽川铺地区梅树村期地层中发现了大量五辐射Punctatus及部分四辐射四方塔形壳属Quadrapyrgites,其中包括1个新种Quadrnpyrgites undulatuscostalis sp.nov..在此基础上对Quadrapyrgites进行了属征补充.双胚层腔肠动物的出现标志着地球生命史的真后生动物演化开端,在生物起源演化历程上占据着关键的位置.本文为研究真后生动物起源演化、生物辐射、体型构建提供了重要实证.
    14  Cambrian Explosion: past, present, and future
    ZHANG Xing-liang
    2021, 60(1). DOI: 10.19800/j.cnki.aps.2021015
    [Abstract](2464) [HTML](0) [PDF 1004.32 K](4466)
    Abstract:
    The journey to understand the Cambrian explosion started with Creation, was subsequently succeeded by Darwinism, and became increasingly impacted by the theory of explosive evolution. The Cambrian explosion by nature is an explosion of animal body plans alongside episodic biomineralization, pulsed change of generic diversity, body size variation, and increase of ecosystem complexity. It is a polythetic event in natural history and manifested in many aspects. No simple, single cause can explain the entire phenomenon. Intrinsic and extrinsic causes were extensively discussed but they are merely prerequi-sites for the Cambrian explosion. Without the molecular evolution, there could be no Cambrian explosion. However, the de-velopmental system alone is insufficient to explain Cambrian explosion. Time-equivalent environmental changes were often considered as extrinsic causes, but the time coincidence is also insufficient to establish causality. Like any other evolutionary event, it is the ecology that makes the Cambrian explosion possible though ecological processes failed to cause a burst of new body plans in the subsequent evolutionary radiations. While the Cambrian explosion did take place under circumstances when the world oceans became habitable for various forms of animals, the developmental Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) were sufficiently complex for constructing complex forms, and resource supply was less restricted. It seems that opportunities were in every corner! Early metazoans shared seafloors with vendobionts for the last 20 million years of the Ediacaran, although their ecological relationships are less known. Metazoans followed the path of evolving organs and sys-tems, developing orderly repetition of body parts, and attempting possibilities, which enable the evolution of morphological, physiological, ecological variations and complexity. While vendobionts kept their less differentiated body designs, tis-sue-grade organization, and probably osmotic physiology. Consequently, Ediacarans died off at the end of their era for un-known reasons. Thereafter metazoans rapidly diversified and generated numbers of phylum-rank stem or crown lineages with different fates. The Cambrian explosion ultimately resulted in the critical transition from microbially-dominated ecosys-tems in the Precambrian to metazoan-dominated ecosystems in the Phanerozoic. However, the temporospatial pattern of eco-systems during the Cambrian explosion is poorly understood, largely because our current knowledge is biased in metazoan evolution and redox conditions, and thus insufficient to reconstruct an ecosystem that is an integrative entirety of biotic and abiotic components. Therefore, we proposed a facies-dependent integrative approach as a working hypothesis toward a more comprehensive understanding of ecosystem evolution during the Cambrian explosion.
    15  AGE RE-ASSESSMENT OF THE LONGDONGSHUI MEMBER (MIDDLE DEVONIAN)IN SOUTHERN GUIZHOU ON THE BASIS BENTHIC FOSSILS
    廖卫华 邓占球
    2009(4). DOI: 1
    [Abstract](2240) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](377)
    Abstract:
    贵州独山的猴儿山组龙洞水段是一套浅海相碳酸盐沉积,盛产底栖牛物化石.通过对该段地层中所含四射珊瑚、床板珊瑚和腕足类等化石属种的详尽分析,再次证实龙洞水段的地质时代仍应属中泥盆世早期(Eifelian).而不是像某些根据痕迹化石或层序地层学的研究那样将它置于下泥盆统.
    16  THE FIRST COMPLETE PAREIASAUR SKULL FROM CHINA
    WANG Jun-you YI Jian LIU Jun
    2019, 58(2):216-221. DOI: 10.19800/j.cnki.aps.2019.02.007
    [Abstract](1420) [HTML](147) [PDF 2.16 M](2010)
    Abstract:
    Although seven pareiasaur species have been named from China, none of them is represented by well-preserved cranial material. Here we briefly describe a new material from Ordos Basin, it includes a nearly complete skull with occluding mandibles. This specimen can be referred to Elginiidae by dermal bosses of cranial bones that have a long and pointed horn, cheek ornamentation in the form of prominent conical horns, supratemporal horn projecting posterolaterally from corner of skull table, slender parabasisphenoid with median, ventral groove, and enlarged tabulars(supernumerary bones) that contact each other medially, thereby excluding the postparietals from the caudal margin of the skull roof. It shares the following features with Sanchuansaurus pygmaeus: a small boss on the maxillary anterodorsal process posterior to the naris, maxillary teeth with fan-shaped crown, 9-11 cusps; and differs from the latter by two exits for the infraorbital canal on the lateral surface are closer and more ventrally(close to the alveoli margin), crown nearly not overlapped, only 14 alveoli(tooth sockets). It shares unique features on the mandible with Huanghesaurus liulinensis for the ventral margin of the mandible nearly straight, the angular with a boss towards the posterior end, dentary teeth with ~17 cusps, the midline bulge ascends the medial face of the crown. The previous cladistics analyses do not support a closely relationship of Huanghesaurus with Elgiidae, but the new specimen supports a closely relationship between Sanchuansaurus and Huanghesaurus, and both should be a member of Elginiidae. The new specimen is referred to Shitienfenia as a new species, S. completus. However, it is also possibly belonged to Shitienfenia permica while Sanchuansaurus pygmaeus and Huanghesaurus liulinensis are valid species. Recently, many skeletons have been collected from the same locality, they will help to resolve the interrelationships of Shitienfenia, Huanghesaurus, and Sanchuansaurus.
    17  VERTEBRATE REMAINS IN AMBER AROUND THE WORLD
    CHOU Chun-yong,XING Li-da
    2020, 59(1). DOI: 10.19800/j.cnki.aps.2020.01.004
    [Abstract](1147) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.29 M](3513)
    Abstract:
    Amber, as an organic gem, is fossilized natural resin widely distributed around the world, especially Baltic region in Europe, Dominica-Mexico in Central America, and Myanmar in Asia. Insects are the most common inclusions in amber, while verte-brate inclusions are the rarest. However, compared to vertebrate fossils from sedimentary rocks, vertebrate inclusions trapped in amber pieces can provide additional information about the soft tissues, primitive death states, and living environment, as well as more visualized and refined 3D morphological information, all of which are important for studies in evolution, palae-oenvironmental restoration, palaeoecology and palaeoethology, which is more intuitive, stereoscopic and detailed than bone fossils. This paper reviews vertebrate inclusions from various amber biotae, including non-avian dinosaurs, aves, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, as well as their evolutionary implication, and also provides a framework of future researches.
    18  MICRO-STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL SHELLY FOSSILS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH FORMING PHOSPHORUS IN CAMBRIAN MEISHUCUN STAGE PHOSPHORITES, XIONGJIACHANG, GUIZHOU
    高磊;杨瑞东;高军波;陈吉艳;陈军
    2018, 57(3):273-286.
    [Abstract](997) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.87 M](1971)
    Abstract:
    寒武纪早期是全球小壳动物化石大幅射的时期,贵州寒武纪初期磷块岩中就含有大量种类丰富的小壳动物化石,而前人对其研究多局限于外观形态的描述,对其微观结构方面的研究较少。文中通过对贵州熊家场地区磷块岩中小壳动物Turcutheca,Paracircotheca,Loculitheca zhijinensis以及Protospongia化石进行电子显微镜观察,描述其显微结构特征。并对Turcutheca,Paracircotheca进行重点生物结构研究,探讨其壳体形态、生长发育方式。通过对小壳动物化石壳体进行SEM-EDS分析,确定组成壳体主要成分为碳氟磷灰石。另外,对化石Turcutheca内核填充部分、壳壁、围岩进行EDS能谱分析,及其元素特征进行对比,初步探讨生物体与成磷之间的关系,认为寒武纪早期小壳动物的繁盛对同期磷块岩的形成起到了至关重要的作用。
    19  POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF FAGACEAE IN QUATERNARY DEPOSITS OF CHINA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERS
    唐领余;李春海;张小平;邵剑文;周忠泽;凌超豪
    2018, 57(3):387-410.
    [Abstract](906) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.67 M](1873)
    Abstract:
    壳斗科植物花粉化石是被子植物花粉化石最为丰富的类群之一,在地史上自第三纪以来一直是中国各地质历史时期中植物区系的一个主要成分。据初步统计,我国第四纪地层中共发现壳斗科花粉化石有6属:Castanea,Castanopsis,Lithocarpus,Cyclobalanopsis,Fagus及Quercus,后者还分出含常绿栎类Quercus(E)和落叶栎类Quercus(D)两种类型。文中对6属中花粉形态相似的Castanea,Castanopsis和Lithocarpus 3属,以及Cyclobalanopsis和Quercus(E)花粉,从花粉粒形状和大小、萌发孔数量和形状、极面×赤道面的平均大小、最长极轴与最长赤道轴比以及外壁表面纹饰等多方面进行详细数值对比和照片对照,提出鉴定要点,希望能提高壳斗科花粉化石鉴定的准确性。同时,文中还讨论中国壳斗科各属植物生长的气候地理条件和生态环境。Castanopsis和Lithocarpus花粉化石分布中心范围在北纬28°—20°,反映该两属生长气候要求大约是年平均气温不低于15℃,年降水量不少于1 000mm;Cyclobalanopsis和Fagus花粉化石的产地在秦岭—淮河一线以南,生长的地理气候条件要求是1月份气温不低于0℃,年均温在8—15℃以上,年降水量不少于800mm的温暖湿润的生态环境;Castanea和Quercus花粉化石在全国各地均有发现,分布北界达北纬36°—50°,反映该两属生长的生态幅度较Castanopsis/Lithocarpus宽得多,基本的生长气候范围在年均温3.5—23℃,能够忍受1月份低于―10℃的寒冷,也能够经受7月份近30℃的高温考验,年均降水量约为500—1 700mm。希望该研究能为提高再造第四纪古植被和古环境,提供一些有说服力的气候地理条件的原始资料。
    20  A new multituberculate, Yubaatar qianzhouensis sp. nov.: the first Late Cre-taceous mammal from Ganzhou Basin, Jiangxi Province
    HU Jin-feng HAN Feng-lu
    2021, 60(4):565-579. DOI: 10.19800/j.cnki.aps.2020057
    [Abstract](900) [HTML](0) [PDF 9.99 M](2009)
    Abstract:
    The Multituberculata represents one of the most successful groups of mammals that lived in the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic. More than 10 genera have been reported from North China, but there are still no records of this group from South China. Ganzhou Basin in Jiangxi Province has been reported to be rich in vertebrate fossils, but no mammals have previously been found there. Here, we report a new multituberculate, Yubaatar qianzhouensis sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Hekou Formation of Ganxian County, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, China. This taxon represents the first known multituberculate from South China.The holotype of Yubaatar qianzhouensis preserves the posterior region of the skull and part of the postcranial skeleton. The posterior part of the skull is laterally expanded, giving the skull a square-like shape. A triangular process is formed by the frontals and projects posteriorly between the parietals. The lower jaw is in tight occlusion with the skull, concealing the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. Therefore, the skull was CT scanned, and the teeth were recon-structed using the software Mimics 19.0. The postcranial skeleton includes both forelimbs, the right scapula, and some ribs and lumbar vertebrae. In general, our new specimen is quite similar to Yubaatar zhongyuanensis from the Upper Cretaceous of Henan Province, and can be assigned to Yubaatar based on the following characters: the frontals are pointed posteriorly and contribute to the medial rims of the orbits; the coronoid process is low and short; the angle between the anterior margin of the coronoid and the molar part of the alveolar margin of the mandible is greater than 45°; the molars lack cusp or-namentation; M1 possesses three cusp rows, and the lower molar cusps are nearly uniform in height. However, our new species can also be distinguished from Yubaatar zhongyuanensis by a combination of charac-ters: the m1 cusp formula is 7︰6; the M2 cusp formula is 1︰3︰3; m1 bears a posterobuccal cingulid; the m2/m1 length ratio is smaller than that of Y. zhongyuanensis; and the coronoid process is wedge-shaped and has sharp peaks. Importantly, the skull is wider in this specimen than that of Yubaatar zhongyuanensis, which is regarded as the largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction methods were used to study the morphology of the specimen’s molars. Our CT sections and 3D reconstructions reveal that most of the molars are damaged, though RM2 is an excep-tion. Furthermore, the 3D reconstructions reveal that Rm2 is present but completely buried in the matrix and make it possible to definitively determine the number of cusps on each molar. To clarify the phylogenetic position of Yubaatar qianzhouensis among multituberculates, we ran a new phyloge-netic analysis based on a recent large data matrix that includes 52 taxa and 130 characters. This analysis resulted in the recovery of 5332 most parsimonious trees, each with a length of 454 steps (CI = 0.452, RI = 0.761). The strict consen-sus tree places Y. qianzhouensis and Y. zhongyuanensis as sister taxa, and Yubaatar as a basal genus within Taeniolabi-doidea. Yubaatar is supported by two synapomorphies: the lingual cusp row of m2 contains 4–5 cusps, and the lingual cusp row of m1 contains 6 or more cusps. Taeniolabidoidea is supported by three synapomorphies, including: on m2, the labial cusp row is about equal in length to the lingual cusp row; the ultimate upper premolar is small relative to M1, and the width/length ratio of M1 is greater than 0.55. The discovery of the new species extends the geographical dis-tribution and increases the diversity of multituberculates during the Late Cretaceous in East Asia. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY Class Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758 Order Multituberculata Cope, 1884 Suborder Cimolodonta McKenna, 1975 Superfamily Taeniolabidoidea Granger and Simpson, 1929 Yubaatar Xu, Zhang, Pu et al. 2015 Type species Yubaatar zhongyuanensis Xu, Zhang, Pu et al. 2015 Yubaatar qianzhouensis sp. nov. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:7773C559-F1E5-4E57-9DFC-E3E0FAC2 7567 (Fig. 2) Diagnosis no contacts between nasals and parietals; frontals with a posterior process projecting distally in a triangular shape between parietals; anterior part of zygo-matic arches directed transversely; coronoid process orientating parallel to the rest of the outer wall of the dentary; the angle of the coronoid anterior margin to the molar alveolar line on the mandibular body greater than 45°; 6 or more m1 main lingual row cusps; the posterobuccal cingulid on m1; 4–5 m2 lingual row cusps; the conical cusps on lower molars. Etymology The species name is the spelling of the ancient name of Ganzhou City. Material Holotype, CUGW VH101. A skull and partially articulated postcranial skeleton. Locality and horizon Hekou Formation at Gan-xian County, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, China; Upper Cretaceous. Remarks Our new species differs from Yubaatar zhongyuanensis by a suite of characters: the m1 cusp formula is 7︰6; the M2 cusp formula is 1︰3︰3; m1 bears a posterobuccal cingulid; the m2/m1 length ratio is smaller than that of Y. zhongyuanensis, and the coronoid process is wedge-shaped and has sharp peaks.

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