Rugosa、Tabulata和Scleractinia是显生宙3个主要的珊瑚化石类群, 它们的中文译名曾繁杂不一, 至今未有一致意见。本文在追溯这些类群(及其同名)译名沿革的基础上, 综合考虑它们的出处、准确性和接受度等因素, 提出使用建议。Rugosa应译作目前广泛使用的“皱纹珊瑚”, 而非少见的“皱珊瑚”“皱壁珊瑚”等, 亦不宜译为意思不对应的“四射珊瑚”(因后者对应的是Tetracoralla、Tetracorallia或Tetraseptata, 均属Rugosa的晚出同名, 已被国际学界长期弃用)。Tabulata应译为由来已久(19世纪末)且影响广泛的“床板珊瑚”, 而非出现较晚(20世纪60年代)、 使用相对较少的“横板珊瑚”, 更非鲜为人知的“牀板珊瑚”和“板珊瑚”等。Scleractinia应译作使用早、接受度极高的“石珊瑚”, 而非不常见的“硬珊瑚”。
Rugosa, Tabulata and Scleractinia are the three major fossil coral groups in the Phanerozoic. However, Chinese translations of their names are inconsistent. In this paper, following an introduction of the concepts of the three groups, the history of their Chinese names is reviewed, and their recommended usages are discussed. Rugosa ranges from the Middle Ordovician through the Permian, and is typified by serial septal insertion in four quadrants. This taxon was established by Milne-Edwards and Haime in 1850. Therefore, Rugosa has priority over Tetracorallia Haeckel, 1866, Tetracoralla Haeckel, 1870, and Tetraseptata Grabau, 1913, names subsequently introduced based on its distinctive mode of septal insertion. Chinese names of this fossil group first appeared in Japanese literature at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, with Tetracoralla being translated as “四射珊瑚” or “四放珊瑚”, and Rugosa as “褶襞珊瑚” or “皱皮珊瑚”. Other translations introduced later by Chinese authors include “皱纹珊瑚”, “皱壁珊瑚”, and “皱珊瑚”. Among all these translations, “四射珊瑚” and “皱纹珊瑚” are presently accepted and most widely used. But “皱纹珊瑚” is preferred herein due to the obsolescence of the terms Tetracorallia, Tetracoralla, and Tetraseptata, and their translation “四射珊瑚”. Tabulata was the other dominant coral group in the Paleozoic, ranging also from the Middle Ordovician to the end of the Permian. First proposed by Milne-Edwards and Haime in 1850, the name Tabulata takes priority over Aseptata Grabau, 1913. Its earliest Chinese translation was derived from the Japanese kanji name “床板珊瑚” at the end of the nineteenth century. Subsequent names translated by Chinese coral workers include “牀板珊瑚”, “横板珊瑚”, and “板珊瑚”. Among them, both “床板珊瑚” and “横板珊瑚” are still commonly used. However, we prefer the former due to its much longer history and more popularity. It is noteworthy that some authors used the name Aseptata and its translation “无射珊瑚”, and some adopted the concept of Tabulatomorpha Sokolov, 1971 and its translations of “床板珊瑚形珊瑚” and “床板珊瑚型珊瑚”. However, none of them has received much attention. Scleractinia, one of the major reef-building groups, first occurred in the Middle Triassic and persists to the present day. Forms now assigned to Scleractinia were initially part of Madreporaria Milne-Edwards and Haime, 1857. However, it was not until 1900 when Bourne introduced the name Scleractinia, and 1943 when Vaughan and Wells proposed its current concept. Two Chinese translations of the name Scleractinia have thus far been available, i.e., “石珊瑚” and “硬珊瑚”, with the former being more widely used and thus being recommended in this paper.