重庆市巫山县庙宇盆地的玉米洞是一处旧石器时代遗址, 出土了大量的哺乳动物化石, 其中的鹿科动物化石计有3属3种, 且均有保存状态较好的角化石, 为华南中-晚更新世鹿科化石的研究提供了很好的参考。大赤麂 Muntiacus muntjak margae以角的尺寸较大为显著特征, 在玉米洞中仅见于中更新世晚期地层中; 黑鹿 Rusa unicolor的角粗壮、纹饰深, 眉枝长且与主枝的夹角为锐角, 二者是华南中-晚更新世大熊猫-剑齿象动物群中的常见成员。葛氏斑鹿 Cervus (Sika) grayi的角相对纤细, 表面纹饰弱, 主枝与眉枝夹角为钝角, 是在西南地区的首次确切报导。R. unicolor化石标本在玉米洞遗址多数地层可见, 而C. (S.) grayi则仅见于代表冰期气候的少数层位中, 显示了玉米洞遗址堆积形成时期的古环境波动。
The Yumidong is a Paleolithic cave site discovered in Miaoyu Basin of Wushan County, Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. The background, lithostratigraphic section and dating results of this site have been described, and the comprehensive analysis of dating results and faunal comparison shows an age of late Middle to Late Pleistocene for the site, about 300 ka to 14 ka, corresponding to MIS 8~2. Many cervid fossils have been unearthed from this site, which provide pretty good materials for the morphological comparisons of Cervidae in the Middle to Late Pleistocene of South China. Three genera and species have been recognized, including Muntiacus muntjak margae, Rusa unicolor and Cervus (Sika) grayi. M. m. margae is only found from the late Middle Pleistocene deposit in the Yumidong Site, having similar size with M. gigas but shorter main beam and longer brow tine than the latter. R. unicolor is larger than C. (S.) grayi, and its antler is robust with well developed longitudinal grooves and crests on the surface. The bifurcation angle between brow tine and main beam is acute. C. (S.) grayi is somewhat slender, and the surface of its antler is ornamented with shallow longitudinal grooves. The bifurcation angle between brow tine and main beam is obtuse. M. m. margae and R. unicolor are both the most common taxa in the Middle to Late Pleistocene mammalian fauna of South China, but C. (S.) grayi is known as a typical Middle Pleistocene species of North China, even it was also found from some Late Pleistocene localities in East China and Japanese archipelago. In term of stratigraphic distributions, specimens of R. unicolor were unearthed from most layers of the deposit in the Yumidong Site, but C. (S.) grayi was only found from limited layers that can be corresponded to MIS 2, MIS 6 and MIS 8. The presence of C. (S.) grayi indicates paleoenvironmental fluctuation during the late Middle to Late Pleistocene in the Three Gorges area.