近年来, 植硅体分析方法被广泛应用于考古学领域, 为世界农业起源、演化研究提供了新的手段和关键证据, 其中在稻作农业起源和传播的研究中, 水稻扇型植硅体对于发现、鉴定水稻遗存起到了重要的作用。研究农业起源的关键, 是找到地质考古记录中的植物遗存, 并准确鉴定野生–驯化特征, 本文介绍了水稻扇型植硅体鉴定方法从定性到定量研究的历史, 重点阐述了现代野生稻生长区、驯化水稻田、旱稻田表土中水稻扇型植硅体鱼鳞状纹饰研究的新进展, 明确了野生、驯化水稻扇型植硅体研究中关于个体鉴定、选择和鱼鳞状纹饰计数的标准, 在此基础上讨论了野生和驯化水稻扇型植硅体纹饰产生差异的可能原因和机制。希望通过本文的总结与讨论, 能够使植硅体分析方法在作物起源和传播的研究中得到更准确、更广泛的应用。
In recent years, phytolith analysis has been widely used in archaeological research, providing new method and key evidence on the study of agriculture origin around the world. Among the studies on rice agriculture origin, rice bulliform phytolith plays an important role in the discovery and identification of rice remains. The key to study agriculture origin is to discover archaeological plant remains and accurately identify their wild–domesticated characteristics. This paper introduces the re-search history from qualitative to quantitative on the identification of rice bulliform phytoliths, focuses on the new progress of fish-scale decoration research in rice bulliform phytoliths from topsoil of modern wild rice growing areas, domesticated paddy fields, and dry paddy fields, clarified the criteria for individual phytolith identification, selection, and fish-scale decora-tion counting. On this basis, the possible causes and mechanism of the difference in fish-scale decorations between wild and domesticated rice bulliform phytolith are discussed. It is hoped that through the summary and discussion of this paper, phy-tolith analysis can be more accurately and widely used in the study of crop origin and spread.